Saturday, September 30, 2017

How I recognize a bad leader and sign of bad leadership


In my brief career as HR personnel, I learnt few things about leadership. I think I am fortunate enough to work under various leaders. All leaders are different and most are great in their own unique ways. I find it quite hard to describe good leaders as they seem to be all different. I admire one leader for taking risks for sake of outcome but I find that quality in bad leader too. I just didn’t like how bad leader take that risks. I admire one leader for being strict and I didn’t like are also being strict. I like one leader for being frank but I didn’t like other leader though he was frank.  I can’t define good leaders but I somewhat know how bad leaders behave;
1.       Bad leader crave for attention and every work he/he does is for attention and reward. He wants to get attention of high profile people, wants to be heard in media but really doesn’t care about management of the affairs if it doesn’t suit him or her agenda.
2.       Bad leaders are too much into details not that is bad. The way they delve into details is bad. They don’t micromanage to enhance the capability of staff but to dig dirt. When employees make mistake, they dig backward to fix the person who makes the mistakes. Bad leader don’t realise, if employee is perfect, they would be not serving under their employee. On other hand, good leader look forward on how to mitigate impact of that mistakes and how to move forward.

3.       Bad leader seeks views but when views don’t validate what he or she thinks, they take it as challenge to their authority. They will not talk to you for days. On other hand, you can argue with great leader and he/she treats you with same magnanimity as before.

4.        Bad leader take credit for good outcome and blame bad outcome either on his supervisor or subordinates. He always think what he does is right and what other does is wrong. He tends to remember your one bad habit and 99 good habits. Good leader just focus one 99% strength of yours. For an instance, I crossed the red line with one leader. He was pissed off and rightly so. But he never victimizes me in any form.

5.       Bad leader thinks what he do is right and important and others are not so important. When you request for something, he will say ‘you be on my shoes, then only you will understand.’ He will go on sharing his problems and ideology instead of listing to you

6.       Bad leader has double standard. He will stick to rules when it is beneficial to you and he will justify for breaking rules when it suits his favourite. He/she will be always surrounded by his/her aye-sayers

7.       Bad leader also boasts himself or herself. For one achievement, he /she will break this into thousand thousands achievement with magnifying glass of ego. He/she will make sure that subordinate is feel indebted despite fact that it is right of subordinates. He/she will want subordinates continuous gratitude for doing what leader is expected to do.

8.       Bad leader will rate you on your sycophancy. If you have subordinate has opened his car door for him/her or carry his/her hand bag, then higher rating will be given.

These are some of the symptoms leader should know when he/she is failing;
1.       When your subordinates ignore you and pretend they are not seeing you
2.       Subordinates would have happily served in that place for decades and suddenly wants transfer
3.       When attrition rate in your organisation suddenly increase without outside factor
4.       When subordinates suddenly looks for opportunities in other departments where you have no control
5.       When your subordinates never share their views or never  contradicts you
When your subordinates do exactly what you have said and never take risks 

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

HRD (Human Resource Division) is not Hema Rangdhen Drub


When I say people I work in Human Resource Division, they give me dry smile and say ‘Hema Rangden Drub. ‘In this past that used to offend me but not anymore. Working few years in district made me accustomed to such things. In the district, Dzongkhag Education Officer (DEO) will be called Deadly Eating Officer. His assistant will be called Another Deadly Eating Officer (ADEO). Indeed, every officer would be known by initials of their posts. People would imagine funny full forms for the initials. ‘Hema Rangden Drub’ is what people really think we do while the truth is we exhaust ourselves fulfilling wishes of others and not getting opportunity to fulfil self-wish which is good in a way. If HR personnel has authority enough for ‘Rangden Drub’, it may spoil the whole mechanism of internal procedures( if not careful). 
Recently, a business administration graduate came to my office for internship and in the course of conversation, she told me her wish was to be HR manager. On asking why, she told me lots of fantasies she read in the college. I too read that in the institute. Besides, she said she really loves to help people. I wanted to tell her that the job of HR is more complicated than helping others. If you are in love of helping others, you better be health officer or doctors. Better if you can walk in NGOs and charitable professions. You can’t do HR job if your aim is only helping. But I didn’t tell her that for fear of killing her dreams. She probably might have got a hint when she found out people shouting at me.
In Bhutan, HR is just more than a decade old from erstwhile personnel management. HRM has also not really walked so far from it. As HR Officer, we are just competent enough of doing administrative jobs. Our executives also don’t give profession the importance it deserve. As of now, they think that we are sort of police who will do dirty jobs of punishing and regulating the employees. If they are too hesitant to take administrative actions or corrective actions against erring employees, they will pass buck to HR. Worst, some of line managers have tendency of saying in public that he never supported penalty imposed while in private, he would be the one recommending harsher punishment. 
While works HR do or is expected to do will be more than Slokas of Kajur and Tenjur, let me point out some of reasons why HR work is complicated. First the recruitment. For HR officer, it is happiest moment to hand over appointment order to selected candidates with congratulatory words. I always look forward to it. But process leading to it is full of emotions. For every candidate selected we rejected at least three candidates. How do you tell them you are not selected when they call you or when you call them? It is not that they are not competent (though some are hopeless). It’s just that they couldn’t impressed panel members in short period of time. Besides, what they know is not enough. They should be able to infer what interviewers with myriad of backgrounds want them to know. Then there is lingering guilt on whether we did enough to be fair because no matter how you regulate, you will never know what is going inside head of panel members or who influence them. 
The next is performance appraisal. An employee thinks he is the best work even though he can be alcoholic or regular absentees from the work. They always think they deserve more. On other hand, organisation will have their own objectives and limited resources. The goal of organisation and employees hardly complement each other. As a HR professional, you ought to look for welfare of the organisation as well as employees. So how do we tell those poor performers that they are not performing well? They will have thousand justifications to back up their thinking. How do we tell them, they don’t deserve a raise? How do we differentiate what they get in case of various position levels. Even cleaning lady thinks she deserves as same as that of chief executive. From her perspective, she is absolutely right as she could be best cleaner ever in the organisation. Worst how do you lay off the people. Although the civil service is place of job security, you still has to lay off some people for various reasons. It is difficult to look into eyes of crying employee and say ‘I am sorry. We have let you go for this and that reasons.’
And there is tricky part called training. Training in Bhutanese context probably is most coveted and least understood subject. Some people think, they should be given training because of boss’s recommendation. Some think they should get because they serve at remote places. Some felt they should get because they are senior most. In absence of adequate resources and in presence of multiple stakeholders, the real objective of the training is lost. Worst, almost all employees think training is reward tool because of our system of paying some financial perks. Competency development plan in Bhutan is still premature baby and it will remain for sometimes due to various reasons. 
While I have more experiences to share, above are mostly encountered issues in my context. To conclude, HRD is not Hema Rangdhen Drub. Its Hema Rodhen Drub. I am telling this because its a fact. I will not justify because I don’t want meaningless pity thrown at me. You will understand when you sit on the chair of HR personnel.

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

I have become an old model


In my heart, I still feel young. Immersed deep into daily technicalities of life, I felt like time hasn’t move forward. Those pains, joys and doubts just seemed like beats of heart. Those tears I shed as kids are still fresh in my mind. I still feel I am just starting my career. But the biological clock says I have used half of my time on the earth and probably I have other half only if nothing untoward happens. But I like to pretend to be young. Every morning I shave so that moustache, the symbol of maturity, is removed. Often I removed those white hair so that I look younger. If given the chance, I would love to be a kid once gain and start life fresh with all experiences and insights I gained in life as lesson. 
While my heart is still young, biological clock is ticking which makes me realize how old I am. Few years ago, I had toothache and I ignored it. Few months ago, I couldn’t ignore anymore despite my longing to pretend to be a young man. It has to be extracted. Few years ago, I could let my grey hair be extracted and still look young but these days white hair keep growing like bushes in the summer. Till last few months, I thought I had perfect eye sight. I thought those granular dots seen on TV screen was problem of service provided by cable operator. Those projectors used during power point presentation were either too small or fonts used by presenter were too small. I never blamed my eyesight. Recently I realized, I wasn’t seeing what my colleague were seeing. A visit to an ophthalmologist was eye-opening not that I never opened my eyes before. The lens of negative three rested on my nose became new reality. For few days, I felt glasses were UFOs landed on me. On the positive side, I don’t complain about cable operator for poor services or projector for being too small. I don’t pull off my white hair anymore. 
I am now an old model physically and mentally.

Saturday, August 26, 2017

Graduates, Civil Service Examination & Coaching


Around 3400 graduates sat for Preliminary Examination, the first part of three-step entry exercise to the Bhutan Civil Service in professional and management cadre which in other words is officer’s cadre. Those graduates might have different reasons for attempting to crack the exams. Some did this for mere employment. They might have realized that this process is most fair process in recruitment system of Bhutan. Some attempted it just to park themselves in civil service while waiting for better opportunities to come their ways. Some might have attempted as they genuinely want to serve in public service or some might have any other options. Whatever the reasons, they attempted to succeed.
On August 22, when result was announced. Only 927 scored above 50 % which is eligible percentage to sit for next round of selection. Those thousands whose hopes are dashed would be trying to figure out what is next for them. Some may be drinking their frustration out in the bar while some may be putting up applications for every available vacancies while few will be browsing websites for doable entrepreneurial opportunities. Of them some hundreds with lucky connections will get jobs in corporation and private sectors while few other hundreds with expertise in their fields will be recruited by few fair minded firm.  Majority of the remaining will either be idle or be exploited by myriad of human rascals. As usual, government will publicly try their best to send some of them abroad with dual aims of reducing employment rate as well as for remitting hard currencies. Idle politicians with their eyes set on next election will talk loudly in both conventional and social media while some of us will lament on lack of opportunities, education quality and so on in the bar with bottle beer on our reserved table. Media will try to blame this and that without blaming everyone in particular for want of advertising money from public sectors.   Lastly, some individuals and service firms will be busy targeting those 900 successful graduates in hope that they fleece some money with promise to help scoring high in main examinations.
Since introduction of Preliminary Examination in 2010, the performance in preliminary exam could be the worst ever. Here too, those unsuccessful graduates will blame on tough sets of questions while outsiders like me will blame the quality of education in Bhutan. As usual, those consultancy firms will be highlight few successful candidates (who might have been brilliant anyway) while advertising quality of their firms for next round of money fleecing. They will hide hundreds of unsuccessful candidates who underwent their coaching classes. They will try fleecing money ranging from two thousands to just below 10 thousands for mere 48 hours of classes. Most of their resource persons will never have undergone process of examinations they seem to be teaching claiming to be experts. They will never have understood either rationale or cognitive selection process. All they will do is collect all past papers, pretend to solve and shove down on the throat of gullible graduates. Few smart resource persons will try to teak questions here and there for further fleecing of money. But their primary mission is making money. All they care is getting maximum at a minimum effort. From money earned from those coaching classes, they relax for next one year.

At the end only limited number of graduates will get into civil service. Others will have wasted just their money collected from parents, siblings and cousins. In such time I always remember ironically advice my teachers gave me ‘if you study hard (meaning textbooks), you will get job.’ I used to think ‘what if 100% percent of us pass out with same high percentage and there is vacancy for only 20% of us?’  This is similar situation in Bhutanese job market. The advice shouldn’t be getting jobs but it should be creating jobs. For this our education system and as well as our educators need overhaul. What is right ten years ago is not right anymore? Otherwise, some training and consultancy firms will continue fleecing money in the name of preparing for limited civil service jobs. 

Thursday, July 13, 2017

The dream of stamping passport Fulfilled but seeing VISA is not


Civil servants come in many shades and forms. So does their nature of profession and budget of agencies. If you are a program officer in the ministry of health, your passport might be stamped at least twice a year and you will see VISA for at least two countries in a year. If you are a teacher in the Ministry of Education, chances are you may get your passport stamped once in a lifetime. The privileges of getting passport stamped depends on nature of your job, budget of your agency and your own competencies in whatever forms (its joke if people say training is not reward).
Since I joined corporate service and latter civil service, I had a dream. I had a dream of getting my passport stamped by immigration officials of many countries. I had a dream of changing of passport documents many times as a result of never ending stamps. But my dream, couldn’t be materialized. All I could do was pressed like button in the Facebook. If I see my pictures of my friends in the Facebook doing circumambulation of Boudhanath temple in Nepal, I pressed like button. If I see pictures of my close friends posing in front of Statue of Liberty, I press like button and comment ‘wow’. If my colleague post pictures of themselves from Grand Palace, Bangkok, I add emojis. 
This time, I got opportunity to visit India. Although passport is not required, I made it a point to get official passport issued. The reasons are simple;
1. I want to see looks of official passport 
2. I want to see how official passport work 
Today I carry this passport to places where it is not required. I carry it into loo and read my name again and again instead of reading newspaper or doing loo-thinking. I carry it to shopping mall which my batch mates find hilarious. I carry it while riding in rickshaws and proudly show it to rickshaw pullers. If Ministry of Foreign Affairs has system issuing VISA to India like they issue passport, I would have process it for the sake of it. Unfortunately they don’t. Because of this, I am not able to see how VISA looks like except for my bank VISA card.
Hope I don’t die before seeing VISA lol.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

My Experience of Attending 4th HR Conference of Bhutan

Meanwhile my contribution

Every day is a journey through rough and smooth, plain and mountain and, difficult and memorable road of my life. Every day is an experience of regret and rejoice, of hard and easy and, pains and pleasure in phase of my life. Every day is learning and learning is a step towards progression and regression, construction and de-construction, and success and failure of my natural age. In journey of my life, my career is a small constituent of my entire process as a living being. Since changing my decision to become a civil servant from a corporate servant, I have an honour of meeting people of various attitudes and educations, profiles and positions and, values and backgrounds. Attending 4thHR Conference at Gelephu was one such opportunity. I have an honour of hearing from five members of Royal Civil Service Commission. I have an opportunity to interact and learnt from all HR professionals of Bhutan ranging from position like myself to high position of Chiefs. HR as profession was earlier carried out by administrative personnel. The focus during that time was administration and unplanned personnel management. It was just more than a decade ago, HR as profession was started in Bhutan. The first batch of civil servants who started their career has reached position of senior HR officer now. As of now, those in Chief and Deputy Chief Level changed into HR profession from various other professions.
The 4th HR conference was held at Gelephu from 10th April to 12th April 2017. Travelling in bus made it more memorable as we were able to interact with each other outside parameter/agenda set by organizers. This was my second opportunity to attend as HR official and first opportunity as HR professional of autonomous agency. My earlier opportunity was as HR professional of local government. This time, I was able to participate, if not, passively participate for whole three days. During 3rd HR Conference held in Gasa from 12-14 April 2016, I was acting as a host. Unlike Gelephu, the lack of adequate opportunities and facilities made it difficult for participants to enjoy and relax. Besides, the rain and frequent power outage at the place crawling with leeches tested the patience of participants.
But this time, it was different. While weather was getting hot and humid, the air conditioned Regional Revenue and Custom Hall was all it needed to calm nerve and cool the bodies of all participants. Organizers and the host had made excellent preparation compared to what I could do at Gasa. The conference discussed various HR issues starting from reforms to challenges, rules and regulations to policies shift, apolitical status to vulnerabilities of politicisation, and so on. At least 60 % of the time was spent on discussion of upcoming Bhutan Civil Service Rules and Regulations which would be consulted with civil servants from districts and central agencies before further discussion with HR professionals.
Apart from conference, I also learnt that Gelephu was known as Hati Sahar or Land of Elephant. This could be because the place used to be habitat of elephants before modernisation took place. Even today, elephants raided villages and farms during summer.  It was probably in late 20th  century, it was renamed as Gelephu (Hill or Place of Abundant Virtues) by someone named Dasho Nabji. We were informed that he renamed quite a few names including Phuntsholing from Jaigon and Samdrup Jongkhar from Gudama/Daranga.


Thursday, March 30, 2017

Sorry State of Bhutanese Media


I have read about sorry state Bhutanese private media frequently. Media houses sprouted like grasses in the spring at one point. Then they wilted for want of monetary support or returns. On other hand, some of us, who are regular readers, lament quality and quantity of news content. We blame on incompetent and inexperienced reporters who joined private media as last resort to get themselves employed. We don’t care about financial situation of media houses. Once in its good time, when media houses were in height of its greatness, we really thought that private media could not only give alternate news but also give stiff competition to state owned media. But cruel rupee crisis nib the bud of bustling media. On other hand, media houses blame deteriorating state on lack of government support and profitability. The media houses were not able to pay employees on time or their salaries were slashed. Some media houses closed down. The lack of profitability has discouraged senior and experienced journalists from working. They either joined state media or do different jobs that give them means to sustain. Today, I see some of good private journalists doing average journalism in state owned media.  I also see some of them working in other jobs ranging from consultancy to giving tuitions to students.
Today, I can also see names of my friends under news articles in some of private-owned newspapers. In one media, I see one of my graduate friends elevated to post of editor due to which I feel like Harvard educated citizen (though many friends told me my English is laughable). One time, I grasped that paper intending to show off to my family of having editor friend. Now I will not read that paper ever.
In 2013, I had an opportunity to observe one private newspaper for my assignment as a trainee in Royal Institute of Management. I learnt that particular media house doesn’t have vision, mission or values. It was opened to get share of government advertisement pie. That time, as democracy was  just started, government had been throwing money for advertisements indiscriminately on media houses. Almost all private media never invested in media business development. Instead, proprietors enjoyed their family holidays in Bangkok or Singapore. They didn’t even bother to keep certain percentage of profit as rolling budget. They thought money will come from government in forms of advertisement like rivers since Bhutan was young democratic country. They felt that sustaining media houses in young democracy was responsibility of government. When government abruptly stopped indiscriminate advertisements, the exodus of competent journalists was heart-wrenching. The media houses that once boast of having 30 employees had to work with two to three employees. They were caught off-guard without having either strategy or competency to come out with strategy to steer off from doom. Their lack of business strategy or corporate strategy came as shock and they were too ill-prepared to respond to it. Some of them couldn’t pay salary for next two months. Employees were either suggested to leave or left the media houses on their own volition. On other hand, owners also couldn’t close media houses immediately as they felt responsible to provide for those who didn’t leave or ignore suggestion to leave. They try to sustain through selling some odd books.
But it didn’t help media houses at all. Some media houses closed down while some only print whenever they get enough advertisements. News for whole publication is by one or two journalists. Today, state of private media just became sort of Chicken and Egg story. Media houses want advertisements first so that they can improve the print, coverage and content. On other hand, advertisers (almost all advertisers are government and corporate agencies) want to advertise in those papers which reach to large and right audience. The issue became whether there should be more coverage to attract advertisement or whether government agencies to advertise so that private media can grow. Both can’t afford to concede as both work under economic principle of limited resources.
But there is something government and media houses can work out. There could be many ways but only one thing comes into my mind. Private media wants help from government agencies but it is not advisable on part of government agencies to distribute ads equally among media houses. Firstly, for many agencies, there are just not enough works that needs media’s help in getting message across. Secondly, they don’t have enough budget to do charity. They want maximum impact for minimum cost. For example, an agency has tender work for huge construction, they will either go to BBS or Kuensel for greater impact and credibility. If agency has vacancies for uneducated people, they will go to BBS. But government can support media directly through scheme like that state funding of election. The Parliament should pass a law to help state support media. The coverage of media should be qualification to receive fund. The amount should directly depend on coverage.  Higher the number of paper sold, higher should be the support. Let’s say a paper cost Nu. 10 per print is sold 1000. The government may give 20% of total cost as support.  Nu. 20%*10*1000=Nu. 20000. Rest of the amount should be left for media houses themselves to either fund through advertisement or sale of papers. This will not solve problem but will definitely mitigate problem and also work as incentive. The idea behind making into law is to prevent politicisation by ruling party.





The Treaty of Ashley Eden and Bhutan


On 25th March 1864 A.D, Mr. Ashley Eden was made to sign agreement with Government of Bhutan drafted by Trongsa Penlop and his supporters. In 1863, Ashley Eden forced his ways into Bhutan when Bhutan was going through serious internal strife. Although Bhutanese never wanted to receive the mission, arrogant and stubborn forced his ways into Punakha despite repeatedly told to go back. Even Paro Penlop couldn’t stopped him at Paro. He was accompanied by Cheeboo Lama of Sikkim as the interpreter. During that time, situation in Bhutan was thus;
1.       Bhutan was undergoing internal strife due to which Jigme Namgyal of Trongsa emerged as the strongest leader
2.       Deb Raja was powerless and just a pawn in the hand of Trongsa Penlop
3.       Dharma Raja (Zhabdrung incarnate)was too young as well as too submissive
4.       Due to internal power struggle, the politics of power was such that sense of patriotism was at lowest point. Everybody was against Trongsa Penlop and wished he lose all power
5.       As none of Bhutanese knew English, Chiboo Lama might have played roles based on his vested interest including interpretation going by Bhutanese accusation during civil war.
The following was the agreement signed by Ashley Eden. Probably, he was probably the first person in history to sign and remarked `under compulsion` to save his own skin from GovernorGeneral of British India.
“That from today there shall always be friendship between the English and the Bhutanese. Formerly, the Dharma Raja and the Queen were of one mind, and the same friendships exists to the present day. Foolish men on the frontier having caused a disturbance, certain men belonging to the British Power, living on frontier have taken Bulisusan between Cooch Behar and the Kam Raja, and Ambaree, near the border of Sikkim, and then between Banska and Gowalparah, Rangamutte, Bokalibaree, Motteeamaree, Pappareebari, Arioetta and then the seven Eastern Duars. Then certain bad men on the Bhutanese side stole men, cattle, and other property, and committed thefts and robberies, and the British men plundered property and burnt down houses in Bhutan. By reason of this bad omen remaining, the ryots suffered great trouble; and on this account the Governor General, with a good intention, sent an envoy, Mr. Eden with letters and presents, and sent with him Chiboo Lama, the minister of Sikkim, and on their coming to the Desi and Dharma Rajas, making petition, a settlement of a permanent nature has been made by both parties. The Dharma Raja will send one agent to the east and one to the west; when they shall arrive on the frontier of the company’s territory, they shall, after an interview with the British agents, receive back the tracts above mentioned belonging to Bhutan, and after these shall be given back, and on full proof being given against persons charged with cattle stealing, &c., the British will surrender such offenders to the Bhutanese and the Bhutanese will like manner surrender offenders to the British. After that each shall take charge of his own territory, look after his own ryots, and remain on friendly terms, and commit no aggression, and the subjects of either State going into the neighbouring State shall be treated as brothers.
If, notwithstanding, any bad men on the either side shall commit any aggression, the rulers of the place in which the offender lives shall seize and punish him. And as Cheeboo Lama is the interpreter between the British and the Bhutan, the Sikkimese therefore henceforth assist the Bhutanese. We have written above that the settlement is permanent; but who knows, perhaps this settlement, is made with one word in the mouth and two in the heart. If, therefore, this settlement is false, the Dharma Raja’s deities will, after deciding who is true or false, take his life, and take out his liver and scatter it o the winds like ashes. The Bhutan’s army will take possession of Sikkim, and if the Raja of Cooch Behar shall attempt to take any land belonging to Bhutan, the Bhutan Government, Sikkim Government and the Company will invade Cooch Behar. If the British attempt to take land from Bhutan, the Bhutan, Sikkim and Cooch Behar will invade the Company’s territory; and if the Behar Raja shall invade Sikkim, the Bhutan, Sikkim and the Company shall invade Behar.  Whichever of the four States, Bhutan, British Company, Behar or Sikkim commit aggression, the other three shall punish it and if, whist this agreement remains, any other enemy shall arise to any of the States, the others shall assist him. This agreement is made between the British and the Bhutanese. And there is the seal of the Dharma Raja and Desi.
Seal here attached                                              Ashely Eden
Signed                                                                   (Under Compulsion)”

 Although Bhutan was in no stable situation to negotiate treaty due to internal strife, Ashley Eden was drunk with ego as he had, in recent years, negotiated and sign important treaty with Sikkim. On other hand, Bhutan was not really aware of actual might and military capability of British though Bhutanese tasted defeat during warfare in Cooch Behar at the time of Desi Zhidhar. Trongsa Penlop who emerged as formidable leader from among Penlops/Dzongpons was more concerned about getting back lost eastern duars which was great source of revenue for him. Probably, Paksha Raja, a runaway Indian mutineer who was acting as Jigme Namgyal’s advisor wanted to balm his own ego and didn’t disclose true might of British. Thus, Bhutanese leader especially Trongsa Penlop and Wangdue Dzongpon not only insulted him but drafted their own treaty whereby duars were to return to Bhutan. Apart from issues of borders and cross borders criminal activities, Eden was not authorised to negotiate about return of duars or any changes in boundary. If Ashley Eden signed the treaty, he was sure to face severe action by Governor General and if he didn’t sign treaty, Bhutanese might have imprisoned him. Thus, he took advantage of Bhutanese leaders’ lack of English knowledge and he wrote `under compulsion’ below his signature. Once reaching India, Indian painted worst image possible of Bhutan and Bhutanese in his report. He demonised character of Trongsa Penlop although Jigme Namgyal redeemed part of his character due to treatment of British prisoners and concern for his own captured soldiers. As mentioned in agreement, Eden spoke with ‘one word in mouth and two in heart’ by discrediting the agreement he signed. Not only that, he recommended permanent annexation of all Duars and war against Bhutanese. Thus, Duar Wars were fought where many Bhutanese were died and around hundred were massacred by  overzealous native Indian soldiers.